Sunday, January 16, 2022

What is an antigen

Antigen is an extraneous foreign particle which may be a protien or dust or pollen grain or smoke or any other particulate matter, which when enter in to Human body elicit sesitisation of the cellular, humoral immunity.

It causes alterations in the cellular physiology by disturbing it's own mechanism by triggering biological signalling system thereby causing sickness or elicit allergic reaction or anaphylaxis making individual suffer with symptoms arisen from sensitisation with causative agent the antigen.

Therefore antigenicity can be present in small part of a bacterial, viral, fungal protien, or over an bacterial cell or viral cell there are number of protien portion which exhibit antigenic activity.

A protien when combined with immunoglobulin elicit allergic reaction are called as hapten.

A cell or an organ of human when transplanted in other human gives rise to several antigenic activity, recipient body marks the received organs, cells as antigens and start electing allergic, anaphylatic reaction, immune system starts producing antigen agaist foreign (received) organs so that it damages these organs and transplanted organs are rejected by recipients body.This phenomenon is called tissue graft rejection.

Auto immune Responses 

When body starts eliciting immune responses against its own cells and muscular, blood cells cartilages and bones, it damages the tissue causing severe disease conditions, the disease conditions are called as Autoimmune Diseases.

Kidney muscles and heart more often Pancreas is more prone for autoimmune diseases.

There are several tests which identifies theses autoimmune disease, these tests are designed to detect the antibodies presnt in the blood for the tissue or the graft.

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